Thursday, March 19, 2020
Red Summer essays The Red Scare is about the period in the history of the United States immediately following WWI. The dates are approximately from the Armistice in November of 1918 to the collapse of hyperinflation in 1920. Within these two dates the country witnessednot so much in rapid succession as concurrentlya deadly flu epidemic, a strike wave of unparallel proportions, harsh suppression in some cases of those strikes, race riots, hyper-inflation, mass round-ups and deportations of foreign born citizens, expulsion of duely-elected officials from various offices in government, an incapacitated president, espionage laws, sedition laws and, of course, the advent of Prohibition and women's suffrage. 1919 was characterized by over 3300 strikes and labor violence suddenly erupted in this time. After the war workers had hoped for a better life. The war had brought many industrial employees higher pay, shorter hours, and better working conditions. Many American workers attacked the union activity, in addition inflation was rapidly rising and soon the cost of living was 77 percent higher than before the war. This resulted in workers going on strike. One particular incident was one in Seattle. This strike began with workers who had walked out of their jobs from a shipyard. This began a strike that soon crippled the city. The IWW was the Industrial Workers of the World. This was a group who used strikes, boycotts, and sabotage to get their way. These such tactics added to peoples anxieties. U.S. attorney General Palmer focused on deporting suspected anarchists and communists. This lead to bombings, one that included Palmers porch. Political violence appeared in the form of bombings. One of the worlds worst race riots occurred in Chicago. It all started when a young teenager named Eugene Williams swam in an area located for whites only and was killed by a blow to the head from a rock. After he had drowned from this the pe ...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Horrifying Hammerhead Worm Facts The hammerhead worm (Bipalium sp.) is a terrifying and toxic terrestrial flatworm. Its both a predator and a cannibal, and is basically a large planarian that lives on land. While the distinctive-looking worms dont pose a direct threat to human beings, they are an invasive species that eradicates earthworms. Fast Facts: Hammerhead Worm Scientific Name: Bipalium sp.Other Names: Broadhead planarian, landchovyDistinguishing Features: Large terrestrial planarian with a spade-shaped head and ventral foot or creeping soleAverage Size: Over 20 cm in length (B. kewense)Diet: Carnivorous, known to eat earthworms and each otherLifespan: Potentially immortalHabitat: Distributed worldwide, preferring humid, warm habitatsConservation Status: Not evaluatedKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: PlatyhelminthesClass: RhabditophoraOrder: TricladidaFamily: GeoplanidaeFun Fact: The hammerhead worm is one of very few terrestrial invertebrates known to produce tetrodotoxin. Description The most distinctive features of the hammerhead worm are its fan-shaped or spade-like head and long, flattened body. The underside of the planarian has a large creeping sole used for locomotion. Species are differentiated by the shape of the head, size, coloration, and stripe pattern. The terrestrial planarians are earth-colored, found in shades of gray, brown, gold, and green. Small hammerhead worms include B. adventitium, which ranges from 5 to 8Ã cm (2.0 to 3.1Ã in) in length. In contrast, adult B. kewense worms can exceed 20 cm in length. The hammerhead worm has a long, flattened body and a broad head. up close with nature / Getty Images Distribution and Habitat Hammerhead worms are native to tropical and subtropical regions, but have become invasive worldwide. It is believed the planarians were accidentally distributed on rooted horticultural plants. Because hammerhead worms require humidity, they are uncommon in desert and mountain biomes. Diet Bipalium worms are carnivores, known to prey on earthworms, slugs, insect larvae, and each other. The worms detect prey using chemoreceptors located under the head or ventral groove. A hammerhead worm tracks its prey, pushes it against a surface, and entangles it in slimy secretions. Once the prey is mostly immobilized, the worm extends is pharynx out from its body and secretes digestive enzymes. It sucks liquefied tissue into its branched gut using cilia. When digestion is complete, the worms mouth also serves as its anus. Hammerhead worms store food in vacuoles in their digestive epithelium. A worm can survive several weeks on its reserves and will cannibalize its own tissues for food. Bipalium kewense capturing an earthworm. Researchers believe the planarian secretes a toxin to immobilize its prey. Ã Jean-Lou JustineÃ¢â¬â¹, Leigh Winsor, Delphine Gey, Pierre Gros, and Jessica ThÃ ©venot Toxicity While some types of worms are edible, the hammerhead worm is not among them. The planarian contains the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. The toxin is found in pufferfish, the blue-ringed octopus, and rough-skinned newts, but not in a terrestrial invertebrate prior to its discovery in the hammerhead worm. The worm can use the toxin to immobilize prey and deter predators. Behavior Hammerhead worms have been mistakenly called hammerhead slugs because they move in a slug-like fashion. They use cilia on their creeping sole to glide over a strip of mucus. The worms have also been observed lowering themselves down a string of mucus. Land planarians are photo-negative and need high humidity. So, the animals usually move and feed at night. They prefer cool, damp places, typically residing under rocks, logs, or shrubs. Reproduction The worms are hermaphrodites, with each individual possessing both testes and ovaries. A hammerhead worm can exchange gametes with another worm via its secretions. Fertilized eggs develop inside the body and are shed as egg capsules. After about three weeks, the eggs hatch and the worms mature. In some species, juveniles have different coloration from adults. However, asexual reproduction is much more common than sexual reproduction. Hammerhead worms, like other planaria, are essentially immortal. Usually, a worm reproduces via fragmentation, leaving behind a tail tip stuck to a leaf or other substrate, which then develops into an adult. If the worm is cut into pieces, each section can regenerate into a fully-developed organism within a few weeks. Injured worms rapidly regenerate damaged tissue. Conservation Status None of the species of hammerhead worm have been evaluated for the IUCN Red List, but there is no evidence their numbers are threatened. Land planarians are widely distributed in their natural tropical and subtropical habitats and have extended worldwide. Once established in a greenhouse, the animals disperse into the surrounding region. In cold areas, the worms are able to survive freezing by seeking protected locations. Economic Importance At one time, researchers were concerned terrestrial planarians might damage plants. Over time, they were deemed harmless to greenery, but then a more insidious threat appeared. Hammerhead worms can exterminate earthworm populations. Earthworms are important because they aerate and fertilize soil. While some methods used to control slugs also work on the flatworms, hammerhead worms are considered a threatening invasive species. Their effect on ecosystems has yet to be fully understood. Sources Ducey, P. K.; Cerqua, J.; West, L. J.; Warner, M. (2006). Eberle, Mark E, ed. Rare Egg Capsule Production in the Invasive Terrestrial Planarian Bipalium Kewense. The Southwestern Naturalist. 51 (2): 252. doi:10.1894/0038-4909(2006)51[252:RECPIT]2.0.CO;2Ducey, P. K.; West, L. J.; Shaw, G.; De Lisle, J. (2005). Reproductive ecology and evolution in the invasive terrestrial planarian Bipalium adventitium across North America. Pedobiologia. 49 (4): 367. doi:10.1016/j.pedobi.2005.04.002Ducey, P. K.; Messere, M.; Lapoint, K.; Noce, S. (1999). Lumbricid Prey and Potential Herpetofaunal Predators of the Invading Terrestrial Flatworm Bipalium adventitium (Turbellaria: Tricladida: Terricola). The American Midland Naturalist. 141 (2): 305. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(1999)141[0305:LPAPHP]2.0.CO;2Ogren, R. E. (1995). Predation behaviour of land planarians. Hydrobiologia. 305: 105Ã¢â¬â111. doi:10.1007/BF00036370Stokes, A. N.; Ducey, P. K.; Neuman-Lee, L.; Hanifin, C. T.; French, S. S.; Pfrender, M. E.; Brodie, E. D.; Brodie Jr., E. D. (2014). Confirmation and Distribution of Tetrodotoxin for the First Time in Terrestrial Invertebrates: Two Terrestrial Flatworm Species (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense). PLoS ONE. 9 (6): e100718. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100718
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Mill's Utilitarianism - Essay Example According to Daniel Bonevac, another implication of utilitarianism is universalism: people should mind the consequences of choices on everyone it affects. We should not consider ourselves, or simply our friends, or community members; we must consider everybody in the society. It is fortunate that most decisions made affect a portion of citizens; this will deny others the pleasure to enjoy the freedom they have. In as much as some pleasures were not intrinsically more valuable than others, nevertheless, utilitarianism would not be Ã¢â¬Å"a pig philosophyÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢d rather be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfiedÃ¢â¬ ; the use and development of our higher facilities would be virtuous solely by virtue of their benefits to other people. Mill argues that Ã¢â¬Å"Pleasure vary in quality as and at the same time quantity.Ã¢â¬ Mill stresses that the principle of utility justifies the right actions (Bonevac, Daniel, and Phillips 177). It tries explainin g what makes them right. But the principle does not have to be conscious motive. Tarrant contends that MillÃ¢â¬â¢s radical ideology on education, laudable in themselves are not unswerving with his utilitarianism since in differentiating between lower and higher pleasures, and in MillÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that the higher pleasure are more desirable, he (Mill) is forced to appeal to non-utilitarian values. In the article, T. G. Miles attempts to criticize TarrantÃ¢â¬â¢s argument against Mill. MillÃ¢â¬â¢s defense of higher pleasure preference is undermined in two forms; firstly, because introduces a different value besides happiness, called dignity, and send, because Mill introduces the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëcontent,Ã¢â¬â¢ which according to Tarrant considers to be Ã¢â¬Ëa correlate of dignity and a function of the higher pleasureÃ¢â¬â¢ and construes as intended stand for Ã¢â¬Å"the sensation attended upon the satisfaction of the desire for higher pleasuresÃ¢â¬â¢ (Pojman, Louis, and James, 320). Not only is Mill playing up and down between
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Nursing Research websites Part 2 - Essay Example gs, 4) collating all evidences and formulating recommendation, 5) putting recommendation into practice, and 6) determining the effects of the application (Oncology Nursing Society). Evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based nursing (EBN) are subsets of evidence-based practice (EBP). They both need the skill to sift among the very vast information available, and pick out which ones are important for the situation at hand. Both of them aim to alleviate the condition of the patient by planning work-up by integrating findings from appropriate studies and health professionalÃ¢â¬â¢s expertise and patient wishes. In fact, based on the steps in EBM provided by Donald (2002) and comparing them with the steps of EBN described above, they seem to be very similar. Despite the similarities of EBM and EBN, there are differences as well. First, since physicians are primarily tasked to plan and to provide treatment and therapy to their patients, EBM mostly deals with the biomedical aspect of healthcare. For example, doctors might try to find evidence of the effectiveness of a treatment option on certain subpopulations (Donald, 2002), probably having the same demographics as the patient in hand. In effect, EBM becomes much more crucial since doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions are more likely a matter of life and death for the patient. It allows individualization of therapy, resulting to less adverse risks and more positive outcomes during recovery. On the other hand, nurses are most likely expected to enact some of the instructions of the doctors, and to provide what McSherry described as a holistic biopsychosocial care to the patients. Distribution of meals, ensuring medicine intake, monitoring vital signs, and probably providing an environment conducive for the recovery of patients are just some of the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ roles. Thus, although important, their decisions may not be as crucial as that of the doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢, who determine what kind of foods are allowed to the patient, and what
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The 1974 adaptation of the critically acclaimed novel the Great Gatsby is directed by Jack Clayton and screenwriten by Francis Ford Coppola, with Robert and Mia Farrow as leads. The two actors give excellent performances, and certainly portray the beautiful people they are made out to be in the book. One scene in particular that reflected that Redford was was chosen for this part was when the Nick and Gatsby are in suits and Nick is perspiring in is utterly unsuitable manner of dress for the weather, while Gatsby remains cool as usual, not shedding a drop of sweat. In addition Mia Farrow develops Daisy's flighty character nicely, and she makes you love her but hate her at the same time very well. Another aspect of the film I found impeccable was the scenery, which centres on the lives of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s decadent and spoiled. The scenery presents the idea that they have money than they need and they can do whatever they want whenever they want. Their scenery is a recreation of European historical grandeur, a fact that the film is keen to demonstrate. Symbolism in the movie was also awesome, I really appreciated how the director added a few twists of his own which I will come to shortly. Particularly memorable is the scene where Daisy weeps over Gatsby's shirts. Is she really weeping for their beauty ? This was really well done and hampered enough to make the viewers believe that someone could actually be so superficial. Also kudos to the director on the scene when the film visits the miserable gas-station home of Tom Buchanan's lover, Myrtle. Here the colour drains from the film, serving as a sharp contrast to the rainbow spectrum of the richÃ¢â¬â¢s world, where money reflects carelessness and happiness. Also recall that owning a dog seems to be the ultimate fashion accessory of the time. The film has dogs running everywhere, a reflection I'm sure on their owners. But see if you can glimpse the scruffy mongrel that steals food from a table at one of Gatsby's parties. Is this a reflection of how Gatsby got his fortune as suggest ed that he came upon it just like how the dog came across the food on the table. This was one metaphor I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t catch in the book and I credit to Francis Ford Coppola the screenwriter. Also the Clayton/ Coppola team portray the spectacles of T.
Friday, January 17, 2020
The Defence of Poesy by Philip Sidney published in 1595 is Ã¢â¬Å" a long essay that comes as an answer to Stephan Gosson's work Ã¢â¬Å"The School of AbuseÃ¢â¬ , where he, in his puritan and strict way of thinking, attacks the poet and his poetryÃ¢â¬ (Wharton 56). Gosson primarily points out that fiction and literature corrupt the public's sense of morality since it opens the public's mind with different realities. It gives the public ideas towards consumerism as literature and fiction becomes a way of money making. It heightens human desire for material growth and development that is most of the time destructive. Gosson is afraid that people will prioritize tangible development than the traditional sense of morality. Philip Sidney though in this work of literature Ã¢â¬Å"The Defence of PoecyÃ¢â¬ opposes Gosson's objections towards poetry or Gosson's puritan attack on imaginative literature. He primarily stated that poetry has an indispensable place in the society as it is a reflection of history, ethics and philosophy. Poetry that contains these complementing elements has an ethical function to the readers. Poetry by which he meant imaginative or creative writing has an ethical value which aims to appeal human beings to Ã¢â¬Å"see the form of goodness, which seen they cannot but love ere themselves be aware, as if they took a medicine of cherriesÃ¢â¬ (Macaulay 11) Poetry which is the best faculty of invention for Sidney has a high purpose for moral education that challenges the minds of the readers. In this literature, Sidney gave good arguments. Unlike science and technology, poetry is a unique human art that is not completely dependent upon nature as the major subject. Instead, poetry makes complementing combinations. Poets create out of their creative imagination, rationality, logic, observation, experiences, acquired knowledge from history and philosophies. The writer creatively combine any of these to create literature. Similarly, poet Ã¢â¬Å"lifted up with the vigor of his own invention, doth grow in effect another nature, in making things either better than nature bringeth forth, or quite anew, forms such as never were in nature, as the Heroes, Demigods, Cyclops, Chimeras, Furies, and such likeÃ¢â¬ (Macaulay 12). Meanwhile poetry when it is factual will benefit the fallen and corrupt world. The poetry's content will illustrates something about reality, how these reality benefited the human beings and the writer's perspective towards this particular reality. Poetry then is very useful to challenge the mind of the readers and also think like the poet itself as it introduces them into a world of ideas. Meanwhile poetry is also an art that reflects perfection, beauty and moral idealism. He says poetry Ã¢â¬Å" worketh, not only to make a Cyrus which has been a particular excellency as nature might have done, but to bestow a Cyrus upon the world to make many Cyruses, if they will learn aright why and how that maker made himÃ¢â¬ (Macaulay 13). He believes that this kind of fiction can actually influence the real world in socially positive ways. Members of the society with this kind of literature might be encourage to live a beautiful and ideal life. It will give them idea that this kind of life is possible. Therefore, poets through their works give the readers mental pictures towards the possibility of having a more ideal world, provide possible solutions and create ideal persons as models to follow in real life. Poetry challenges the mind, the physical senses, the fantasy and the judgment of the readers. Through poetry, people are also encourage to create to make things beautiful just like what they read in literature. Sidney also stresses that the poet Ã¢â¬Å"goeth hand in hand with nature, not enclosed within the narrow warrant of her gifts, but freely ranging within the zodiac of his own witÃ¢â¬ (Macaulay 11). Sidney apparently acknowledges that a poet uses all the his resources to create an art and in some sense a liar because they sometimes make things up. But every poetry entertains, delights and teaches the readers with a specific educational purpose. There is nothing as Ã¢â¬Å"art's for arts sakeÃ¢â¬ because whatever the poet's purpose or intention in creating, words that create imagesÃ¢â¬â whether good or badÃ¢â¬â a poet moves the readers to be better than they are. The mental images establishes passion and desire and knowing your individual passion and desire will lead to self discovery and encourages journey for awareness. Apparently Sidney present poetry in its affirmative light illustrating its positive effects to the readers.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Juvenile Crime Paper Malina Wiese CJS/200 December 9,2012 Juvenile Crime Paper Juvenile Court is a tribunal having special authority to try and pass judgments for crimes committed by children or adolescents who have not attained the age of maturity, generally defined as persons under the age of 18 and above the age of 10. Adult Court is a court of law where adults can be tried, and if convicted, face adult punishment such as probation, adult prison, or even the death penalty. Juvenile cases are handled differently than adult criminal cases. Instead of a criminal district or county court, juvenile cases are heard by a juvenile court judge. A juvenile who is alleged to have committed an offense may have their case heard in juvenileÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Roughly half of all juvenile arrests are made for theft, simple assault, drug abuse, disorderly conduct, and curfew violations, according to the federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Some other crimes that are committed by juveniles are auto theft, DUI, trespassing, underage alcohol consumption, and property damage. In an average year, only about 3% of cases heard in juvenile court involved violent offenses like robbery, rape, murder, and aggravated assault. Historically, the vast majority of juvenile court cases have involved male offenders. Usually between the ages of 14 and 17. But the number of girls entering the juvenile justice system has been on the rise in recent ye ars, in an average year, girls accounted for 27% of all juveniles facing proceedings in the juvenile courts in the United States. Over the last 10 years, there has been a marked increase in the number of crimes committed by juveniles. The largest increase has been in the number of violent offenses committed. Motor vehicle theft and property crimes, burglary, and larceny have also increased substantially. Juveniles are not only committing more crimes, they are more frequently becoming the victim of a crime, and more and more juveniles are being victimized by assailants armed with firearms. A criminal record will negatively impact theShow MoreRelatedJuvenile Crime Statistics Paper765 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJuvenile Crime Statistics Paper University of Phoenix CJA374 May 10, 2011 Juvenile Crime Statistics Paper This paper will address and summarize four different points from the juvenile arrests bulletin from 2001. 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Throughout centuries of development, crime and social safety are still the biggest concerns for a country since it can influence the political, economic, and social aspects. With the evolution of human civilization, more than seventy percent of the world has been urbanized into developed countries. These countries contain advanced technologies, highly-comprehensive policies and economic system. Along with